Glossary

  • "Warm-edge" spacer
    Spacer with "low" thermal conductivity creating the effect of a "warm edge".
  • Acoustic interlayer
    Interlayer significantly contributing to glazing noise attenuation  (classification criterion as per the mechanical impedance test).
  • Acoustic performance
    Aptitude of a glazing to limit noise transmission.
    The overall acoustic performance of a glazing is expressed using the acoustic transmission loss indicator Rw (C ; Ctr) measured in the laboratory in accordance with Standard EN ISO 140 and assessed using the procedures indicated in Standard EN 717-1.
  • Air or gas space
    Volume of dehydrated air or argon gas (or krypton) enclosed between the glass components of insulating glazing.
     
  • Annealed float glass
    Glass that has been neither tempered nor heat hardened. The annealing of float glass, a controlled cooling process, allows the elimination of the residual stress in the glass and is an integral part of the float glass manufacturing process.
  • Article 1792-4 of the French Civil Code
    The manufacturer of a structure, a portion of a structure or an element of equipment (…) is jointly liable for the obligations stipulated in articles 1792, 1792-2 and 1792-3 (…).
    For the application of this article, the following are considered to be equivalent to manufacturers:
    • anyone who imports a structure, a portion of a structure or an element of equipment manufactured abroad;
    • anyone who presents it as his own work by affixing to it his name, trademark or any other distinctive sign
  • Assembly process (CEKAL)
    Association of a type of sealant with a type of spacer.
  • ATec
    French abbreviation for a Technical Notice issued by a group of experts, upon request from an industrialist, concerning an innovative product or construction system, after examination of the application by the CSTB.
     
  • ATex
    French abbreviation for a Technical Experimentation Assessment issued by a group of experts, upon request from an industrialist, concerning an innovative construction system or a construction project, after examination of the application by the CSTB.
     
  • Balanced glazing
    The presence of valves makes it possible to balance the internal and external glazing pressures at the installation location when it is at an altitude different from that of the manufacturing site (> 900m).
     
  • Breather
    Valve in the spacer making it possible to balance internal and external glazing pressures during installation.
  • Butyl sealant
    Product, generally made of polyisobutylene (butyl), ensuring the sealing of the space contained between the panes in insulating glazing to protect it from water vapor or gas.
  • Certification program (CEKAL)
    Set of documents defining the product certification system.
  • Coated glass or glazing
    Basic glass upon which one or several solid thin layers of inorganic materials are deposited using several types of deposit methods, in order to modify one or several of its properties.
  • Constituents
    Components included in the composition of the insulating glazing (e.g.: glass pane, spacer, desiccant, mastic sealant, etc.).
     
  • Construction Product Regulation (CPR)
    European regulation imposing compliance with the harmonized European standards for all of the construction products they concern, and defining the methods to inform customers (Declaration of Performance – DoP).
  • Consumer Code
    French code grouping together the legislative measures related to consumers' rights.
     
  • CSTB
    French Scientific and Technical Centre for Building. Secretariat of the Specialized Group No. 6 for “Bay window and glazing components” (for the  DTA and ATec).
     
  • CSTB manual 3242
    “Climatic conditions to be considered for the calculation of maximum and minimum glazing temperatures
  • CSTB manual 3242 V2
    “Structural glazing – Technical Requirements Manual.”
     
  • Declaration of Performance (DoP)
    When a construction project is covered by a harmonized standard or has been the object of a European technical assessment, the manufacturer issues a performance declaration for this product when it is put on the market.
     
  • Desiccant
    Product, usually of the "molecular sieve" type, incorporated into the insulating glazing  spacer to ensure the dehydration of the air or gas space.
     
  • Double or triple glazing
    See Insulating glazing.
  • DTA
    French abbreviation for a Technical Application Document issued by a group of experts, upon request from an industrialist, concerning a product that is the subject of a harmonized standard, after examination of the application by the CSTB.
     
  • Energy characteristics
    Energy characteristics are divided in 2 parts:
    • Energy Transmission, ET (ℯt): direct transmission of solar energy through the glazing
    • Energy Reflection, ER and E'R (pℯ and p'ℯ): direct reflection of the solar energy on the 2 surfaces of the glass (coated and non-coated).
  • European Assessment Document (EAD)
    A product that is not covered or only partially covered by a harmonized standard may be the subject of a European Assessment   Document  adopted by the EOTA.
     
  • European Technical Assessment (ETA)
    A product that is not covered or only partially covered by a harmonized standard may be the subject of a European Technical Assessment  issued by a member of the EOTA.
  • EVA (EVA Interlayer)
    Ethylene Vinyl Acetate 
  • Free (side or edge)
    Glazing with at least one edge that is not inserted in the glazing channel in the joinery.
  • French Civil Code
    A set of rules determining the status of persons (Book l), of property (Book II), and of the relationships between private individuals (Books III and IV).
     
  • Glazing composition
    Example for insulating glazing: 4-16-4
    The digit in the middle corresponds to the thickness of the air or gas space. The 2 other digits indicate the thickness of the 2 glass panes, in mm.

    Example for a laminated PVB glazing: 44.2
    The first 2 digits indicate the thickness of the 2 glass panes, in mm. The last digit indicates the number of PVB films, in this case 2 x 0.38 mm, i.e. 0.76 mm.
     
  • Harmonized standard
    Product standard whose application by the manufacturer is required to be able to prove compliance with the European Construction Product Regulation (CPR).
  • HST tempered glazing or glass (TG)
    Tempered glazing that has undergone a “heat soak” treatment to reduce the risk of thermal breakage due to a nickel sulfide inclusion.


     
  • Insulating glazing (IG)
    A distinction is made between double glazing and triple glazing.
    • -Double glazing
      Glazing composed of 2 glass panes (of which at least one is coated), separated by 1 spacer.
    • -Triple glazing
      Glazing composed of 3 glass panes (of which at least 2 are coated), separated by 2 spacers.
  • Interlayer
    Film made of synthetic material used to assemble glass panes and manufacture laminated glazing.
     
  • Ionomer (Ionomer interlayer)
    Ethylene co-polymer (ionic cross-linking).
  • Laminated glazing or glass (LG)
    Glazing composed of 2 or several glass panes assembled together with one or several interlayer films made of synthetic materials (such as PVB, ionomer, EVA, etc.).
  • Light transmission (LT or tᵥ)
    Percentage of luminous flux transmitted directly through the glass wall.
  • Low emissivity coating
    A metallic oxide coating deposited on the glass pane to limit the transmission of rays in the infrared domain and to limit energy losses. The emissivity value is taken into account in the Ug calculation.
     
  • Mastic sealant
    Product usually formulated from polysulfide, polyurethane, silicone or hot-melt, ensuring mechanical strength and  completing the tightness around the edges of the insulating glazing.
  • MVBs – Measurement and Verification Bodies
    These bodies carry out the inspection visits and tests required in the framework of the CEKAL certification.
  • Non-conventional (assembly process, system or constituent)
    An unusual assembly process, system or constituent for which CEKAL requires a Technical Notice (ATec) or Technical Application Document (DTA) prior to examining a certification application.
  • Patterned glass
    Glass with a raised, decorative motif.
  • Point-fixed glazing
    Installation  technique for the glazing making up the external envelope of a building (facade or roof), using glass products that generally have drill holes in the corners and are mechanically fastened to the bearing structure.
  • Pre-balanced glazing
    Pressurizing or depressurizing the air or gas space on the manufacturing site to naturally rebalance glazing intended for installation at an altitude different from that of the manufacturing site (> 900 m).
  • Psi (Ψ)
    Linear thermal transmittance coefficient that depends on the elements located in the environment near the glazing edges (value generally calculated).
  • Reference angle
    Angle of support for installation in the frame. During manufacturing this angle is indicated on insulating glazing weighing over 100 kg.
     
  • Renovation glazing
    Insulating glazing incorporated into a plastic profile enabling its installation in an old glazing channel.
  • Screen-printed glass
    Tempered glass upon which enamels have been deposited
  • Solar contribution
    The energy transmission coefficient (solar factor) characterizes the solar contribution, i.e. the total quantity of solar energy transmitted through the glazing. A low solar factor will avoid internal overheating in buildings exposed to the sun. It is expressed in % and symbolized by the letter “g”.
     
  • Solar factor
    see Solar contribution.
  • Spacer
    Profile used in insulating glazing assembly to ensure the spacing of the glass panes at a certain distance.
     
  • Standard interlayer
    An interlayer that can be clear, translucent or colored, and is not identified as acoustic or stiff.
  • Standard NF DTU 33
    “Construction work – Curtain facades.”
  • Standard NF DTU 39
    “Construction work – Work with glass and mirrors.”

     
  • Standard NF EN 1063
    “Glass in building – Security glazing - Testing and classification of resistance against bullets attack.”
  • Standard NF EN 1096
    “Glass in building – Coated glass.”
  • Standard NF EN 12150
    Glass in building – Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass.”
  • Standard NF EN 12543
    Glass in building – Laminated glass and laminated safety glass.”
  • Standard NF EN 12600
    “Glass in building – Pendulum test – Impact test method and classification for flat glass.”
  • Standard NF EN 1279
    “Glass in building – Insulating glass units.”
  • Standard NF EN 13022
    “Glass in building – Structural sealant glazing.”
  • Standard NF EN 13541
    “Glass in building – Security glazing - Testing and classification of resistance against explosion pressure.”
  • Standard NF EN 14179
    Glass in building – Heat-soaked thermally-toughened soda lime silicate safety glass.”
  • Standard NF EN 14449
    Glass in building - Laminated glass and laminated safety glass – Evaluation of conformity/product standard.”
  • Standard NF EN 356
    “Glass in building – Security glazing – Testing and classification of resistance against manual attack.”
  • Standard NF EN 410
    Glass in building – Determination of luminous and solar characteristics of glazing.”
  • Standard NF EN 572
    Glass in building – Basic soda lime silicate glass products.”
  • Standard NF EN 673
    Glass in building - Determination of thermal transmittance ( U value ) – Calculation method.”
  • Standard NF EN ISO 10140
    “Acoustics – Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements.”
  • Standard NF P78-470
    Glass in construction – calculation of insulating glazing component temperatures and stresses in sealant.”
  • Standard XP P20-650
    “Windows, French doors, fixed framees and joinery assemblies – Installation of mineral glazing in the workshop."
  • Stiff interlayer
    Interlayer allowing laminated glazing to withstand a higher machanical load.
  • Structural glazing
    Installation  technique for insulating glazing making up the external envelope of a building, involving gluing onto a frame.
  • Technical Regulations (of the CEKAL certification)
    Set of documents defining the certification requirements, composed of the following texts:
    • the certification Rules defining the overall framework for the certification,
    • The Technical Requirements for insulating glazing, laminated glazing and tempered glazing that make up the technical "referential" of the certification for each product category.
  • Tempered glazing or glass (TG)
    Glass in which a permanent superficial compressive stress is created through a controlled heating and cooling process, to improve its resistance to mechanical and thermal stress. If it breaks, this glass is fragmented into a large number of small pieces whose edges are generally not very sharp.
  • Thermal breakage
    Glazing breakage caused by a thermal shock (resulting from a temperature difference between two zones on the surface of the glazing).
     
  • Thermal performance
    Aptitude of a glazing to limit the thermal exchanges between outside and inside. The thermal insulation performance of a glazing is characterized by Ug.
  • Triple glazing
    Insulating glazing composed of 3 glass panes (of which at least 2 are coated with low emissivity coating), separated by two spacers.
  • Types of glazing (CEKAL)
    Certain types of glazing are automatically included in the scope of the CEKAL certificate. Other so-called "specific" types of glazing may be subject to an additional issuance after an inspection on site and/or test. Page 2 of the certificate indicates the types of glazing that are automatically included and those considered "specific".
  • U g
    The thermal insulation performance of a glazing is characterized by the Ug value. The Ug coefficient expresses the thermal transmittance of the glazing in its main portion W/(m2.K). The lower the value, the better the performance.
  • U w
    Thermal performance of the window, notably taking into account the Ug coefficient of the insulating glazing and the thermal performance Uf of the frame.

     
  • VIR
    French abbreviation for Reinforced Insulating Glazing
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
    Additional information is available at the following address: http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/etiquette_cov.pdf